Introduction

readinggirlLong time ago, before I met Christ and accepted him as Lord and personal Savior, I wasn’t really interested into reading and studying academic books. Books was an obscure, incomprehensible entity to my taste. I never even bothered to read newspapers or other novels just for curiosity. No, books was a waste of time, and so I believed. But when I became a follower of Jesus Christ almost twelve years ago, I felt the sudden hunger for knowledge. I never felt this craving for knowing and learning before in my life. And so I become a “bookworm” (a person devoted to reading and studying). While not neglecting studying my Bible, I indulge and keep indulging myself in reading books that touches the areas of epistemology, ethics, church history, metaphysics, theology and philosophy. There is not an hour or a minute that I actually have been in negligence with my studies until this very day. My passion in studies leads me to study apologetics and its discipline and reading other apologetical methodologies. So, my major part in my life is having possessions of numerous academical books and yes you can call me bibliophilia so much so, I find a quote from Erasmus rather telling of my condition: “When I have a little money I buy books, and if any is left, I buy food and clothes.”

    By studying certain subject (s) I came to understand the importance of knowledge and how we as thinking person should not waste our God given mind by not learning, thinking well and avoiding much irrationality or faulty thinking.  Besides from reading the Scripture, apologetics has been a great help to me because it involves, not only in knowing how to defend my faith, but it  has also given me much insight that apologetics as a discipline makes you more able and prepared in handling skeptics objections against your Christian faith. Being exposed to apologetics is absolutely not peripheral but essentially crucial in our Christian world and life view. It is really sad that not all Christians even seriously considers the study of apologetics. In this essay I will try to explain, in this essay what apologetics is and then we will proceed to why the discipline of apologetics is necessary. May you find this written material helpful and inspiring in your pursuit in studying apologetics.

What Is Apologetics?

I went to Wushu Kung Fu Academy in Stockholm and I studied there with my brother for five years under the instruction of Lois Lin. The training was quite rigid and uncomfortable because it requires techniques, skills, stamina as well as flexibility in your part. Timing was also important and so is balance. I was probably almost fifteen years of age when I begun training martial arts because it, not only teaches you to have self-control, it teaches you how to defend yourself against any kind of assault. Having knowledge in martial arts or self-defense can be very quite handy now a days, one must fight or defend through any kind of situations with little damage on your part as possible. While, Kung Fu is good with physical and mental training, it also teaches you how to defend yourself from anyone. Apologetics is almost the same as Kung Fu but not quite. Wushu, involves physical, muscular, balance, timing, strength etc., If there is no other way to avoid confrontation, one must engage and even damage your opponent in order for you not to be in his situation. Apologetics on the other hand need not have any physical confrontation but only verbal, logical, rational argumentation, and and so fort. Wushu is an art of defense while apologetics is also an art of defense and it has to do more in thinking logically and defending your faith.

Apologetics (Greek apologia) means defense as I have mentioned earlier. To give an “apology” does not hereby mean to apologize or showing regret. It means to give a rational defense of what or why you believe in certain things be it God, the Bible, Jesus and your world and life view as a Christian. Defending the Christian faith is not an option but a command to do apologetics and explain to whom why we believe what we believe. Peter a disciple of Jesus Christ wrote,

But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you with meekness and fear. (1 Peter 3:15-16)

In additional of our understanding what apologetics is, Norman Geisler wrote,

The most important reason to do apologetics is that God told us so. The classic statement of 1 Peter 3:15, which says, “But in your hearts set apart Christ as Lord. Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks you to give reason for the hope that you have. But do this with gentleness and respect.” This verse tells us to be ready. We may never run across someone who asks tough questions about our faith, but we should still be ready to respond if someone does. [Normal L. Geisler, Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics, Baker Books, p. 37]

Thus, Christian apologetics seeks to serve God and the church by assisting fellow Christians to carry out the mandate of 1 Peter 3:15-16. This particular verse tells us to be on alert and ready if someone or somebody ask us tough questions about our faith. We may not always encounter tough questions about our faith but we should still be on the look out nevertheless. And if this happens we should not run and hide and hope the skeptics will soon vanish into thin air. Rather, we should answer him or her whatever the skeptic have in mind only with meekness and fear. I think we must keep in mind is that not all skeptics are sincere in knowing the answer of why you believe what you believe. Some, if not most skeptics are just out to win or with an axe to grind, and probably wants a simple quarrel, and if this happens, then no reason for giving him an answer in why you believe what you believe, because this will only cause unnecessary, waste of time discussion, that should not have happened in the first place. Likewise, as a martial artist, I have been told not to look for a fight nor fight if absolute necessary. If anyone challenges you to fight, as an self-defense practitioner, one is likely to ignore. The manners or code of conduct as a martial artist is to avoid trouble as much as possible and not to use the skills of fighting when one is provoked or challenged. This is true with apologetics in some sense though some challenges (debate) from skeptics should be faced head on just to demonstrate that their arguments are futile. In addition with our discussion, doing apologetics is more than just an intellectual task or having a brain tease. It actually enhances our understanding about God, Jesus, Scripture, science, philosophy and the discipline of theology. By having a greater insight in the area of apologetics, makes us more prepared in handling various objections against the Christian faith. Philosopher Greg L. Bahnsen wrote,

According to Cornelius Van Til, apologetics aims to defend the Christian faith by answering the variety of challenges leveled against it by unbelievers, thereby vindicating the Christian philosophy of life (world view) over against all non-Christian philosophies of life (world views). [Greg L Bahnsen, Van Til’s Apologetic, P&R Publishing, p.29]

The Necessity Of Apologetics

The world is never a safe place whether you a an expert of martial arts or not. Likewise, the Christian faith is never safe or accepted in the market of ideas but is constantly marginalized. Hostility, antagonism, mocking, and persecution towards the Christian faith is common and is unlikely to refrain. Our Lord Jesus warned us that,

If the world hate you, ye know that it hated me before it hated you. If ye were of the world, the world would love his own: but because ye are not of the world, but I have chosen you out of the world, therefore the world hateth you (Jn. 15:18-19)

The beloved apostles faced similar hostility and persecution yet did not commence to witness and boldly defended their faith even unto their death of martyrdom. Though martyrdom for having the faith in Jesus Christ is uncommon in the Western hemisphere, the mocking, hostility and some form of persecution against Christians is prevalent. News media, Hollywood filmmakers, politicians , teachers, professors, etc., are united in one common agenda and this is to destroy Christianity once and for all. Why? The as the apostle Paul said, “The carnal mind is enmity against God” (Rom. 8:7). What this mean is that, the mind of the flesh is hostile to God and can never submit itself to the law of God. Becoming a faithful follower of Christ is to renew our thinking and not have the same mind of the carnal mind of the unbeliever because it is hostile to God. Again Paul wrote,

And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God (Rom. 12:2).

The Christian mind should not be conformed (be similar) to the way of the rest of the world (“age” or “era”). The enmity against God, and its sinful, dehumanizing values should not be entwined by the believer, instead, the believer should be transformed (Gk. metamorphoo, “change”) by the renewing of the mind. Godly transformation starts in the mind and heart. In his two great commandments, Jesus Christ thought this to his disciples namely to, “And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy strength: this is the first commandment” (Mk. 12:30). Followers of Christ who are steadfastly allured by the philosophy of the world are unlikely to love their Lord with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength. Doing apologetics is one of the means by loving God with all our minds, strengths, soul and heart. The Christian mind who is in accord with his faith in Jesus Christ are likely to be able to distinguish falsity and irrational arguments augmented by the carnal minds of the world. The enmity of the world against God and its false pretensions (atheism, nihilism, evolutionism, communism, homosexuality, false religions etc.,) contradicts the Christian mind. The Christian mind, by correctly being discerned (between coherent and incoherent in thinking) do not stand in common ground with the unbelieving mind, nor does he be neutral. Paul warns Christians in Colossians 2:8, “Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.” Bahnsen as quoted earlier commented,

By attempting to be neutral in your thought you are a prime target for being robbed– by “vain philosophy” of all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge” which are deposited in Christ alone (cf. v.3). Paul explains that vain philosophy is that which follows the world and not Christ; it is thinking which subsuppositionally committed to Christ in all of our thinking. [Greg L Bahnsen, Always Ready, Covenant Media Foundation, p.5]

Not only that Christians should transform their minds and not to conform with the philosophy of the world, Christian apologists might strive also in defending the Gospel of Christ against those who ridicule, and mock it. Paul said, “Inasmuch as both in my bonds (prisoned), and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel, ye all are partakers of my grace.” (Phil. 1:7) What Paul is telling us is that he defended and confirmed the gospel against opponents’ assault and were not silence even while in prison. Not only that Christians ought to defend the Gospel from the claws of its enemies, iy should also be advanced by witnessing to unbelieving mind. To many arguments has been advanced by atheists, and Muslims alike, for instance, the historical reliability of the Gospel, the true deity of Christ, the existence of God and so forth, yet the Scripture reminds us to “let God be true, but every man a liar.” (Rom 3:4) The Christian soldier have the obligation to devastate the skeptics prideful objection of God, His Son etc.,

For the weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strong holds; Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalteth itself against the knowledge of God, and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ ( II Cor. 10:3-5).

Paul reminds his fellow believers in Christ that they are at war in the world of ideologies against the unbelieving mind–the carnal mind. The Christian apologists cannot afford being neutral and carnally minded. The loyal servant of Jesus Christ should cast down the arguments that exalts itself against the knowledge of the Creator and Savior which is God. The strong holds of neo-atheism and its false pretension of arguments should be demolished by confronting it with cogent, logical, Christ-centered apologetics, yet with love and respect. The “strong holds” of the 21st century that we should be busy engaging in demolishing against their false pretenses are the neo-atheists such as Dawkins, Hitchen, Harris, Dennet and story teller and author of the Golden Compass, Philip Pullman. These infidels are not only anti-God but also anti-Christian. You don’t have to take my word for it, all you have to do is read the literatures of these fundamentalist atheists. If these militant atheists mentioned above were granted political power, Christians would probably end up similar to Hitler’s concentration camp probably for brain examination, because belief in God, Jesus, angels, hell and heaven, according to them, is a sign of having brain damage. These men as well as other secularists out there are not you average atheists. Their intentions is no longer to befriend Christians and convert them to atheism but sees us as disillusioned, fanatical sponges worthy of desolation.

God created this universe including you and I but most of us doesn’t want God to be our ruler and King in our lives. We prefer our own selfish, sinful way of life and so we tend to suppress God and worship the things that the Creator created more than Himself. Amongst the things we adore and worship which God made is our minds. We repress the Creator who created our mind by using it in denying His existence. The very mind that God endowed upon us has become the primary weapon in denying His existence. The is exactly what the prideful, militant, fundamentalist neo-atheist has been doing for all eons. They denied their Creator and even insults Him with their arrogance and consuming hate. The neo-atheists are the “sage” of this world. They call themselves the “Brights” or “wise men.” They are the Enlightened of the 21st century since the Renaissance. But, these wise men has been confounded by God as fools. “Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?” (I Cor. 1:20).

Christians who engages in apologetics on the other hand doesn’t need to fear the arguments made by fools because God grants him understanding in all things (II Tim. 2:7). Should Christian be intimidated by atheists ridicule and hostility? No, because God has not given the Christian spirit of fear but with a sound mind (II Tim. 1:7). Before taking stand by defending our faith against infidels we must learn that wisdom and knowledge can only be located in Christ. True knowledge (of God) cannot be found in realm of atheism and also in the realm of world religions. “In whom [Christ] are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge.” (Col. 2:3 ) [emphasis mine]. The Christian mind cannot adopt the carnal mind way of thinking because the believer can only have full access of the true wisdom and knowledge in none other but Christ Jesus. The Christian world and life view is far more rational and realistic than any other kind of anti-Christian world view combined. If the God of the Bible exist, and that he came into the world by entering time and space and became in the person of Jesus and lived with us for a moment then crucified and died for our sin, and then rose back to life three days later and ascended back to heaven really is true (which it is!), then why should we fear antagonistic philosophies that undermines the Christian faith? We have no reason to fear in reasoning by defending the Gospel of Jesus Christ and the truthfulness of Christianity.

Is apologetics necessary? I already given you my answer. The discipline of apologetics is mandated by God. Apologetics is needed today as it was needed two thousand years ago. By doing apologetics in different areas of human enterprise (epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, logic etc.,) can be divided in three ways. Apologetics can be used as proof, as defense and as offense. More about this later in my The Discipline of Apologetics article.

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By Reeves

charlesDBefore we get into the core of this, rather long essay, let me first start to introduce you briefly about what evolution really means and what it teaches. Then we will examine its tenets whether or not evolution is a fact or just a man-made defiance against God. It is said that, “It is always wise to get to know your enemy” as the saying goes. Without knowing or having any knowledge about your opponent can be very deceiving and even lethal. 

Evolutionist atheists pride themselves to be the champion of reason. They tell Christians to abandon their faith and should start using their brains.

Well, I agree though I would say that I will never abandon my faith in Christ because it is the power unto salvation (Rom. 1:16), yet I will use my brain with its rationality to discard evolution. I pray evolutionists will do just the same.

What Does Evolution Means?

Evolution covers three basic areas: the origin of the universe, the origin of first life, and the origin of life forms. These three are also commonly understood as cosmic evolution, chemical evolution, and biological evolution.

Since, the theory of evolution is broad, my aim in this study is confined only in the life sciences– that is biological evolution. Though the term evolution can mean a lot of things (for example, micro evolution vs macro evolution can be very misleading, but I’ll explain this terms later on), let is not be side tracked to the common understanding of evolutionists in which they propagate.

Biological evolution is the description of naturalistic process that is assumed to have turned molecules into man over billions of years.

Douglas J. Futuyma an evolutionist defined biological evolution as follows:

“In the broadest sense, evolution is merely change, and so is all-pervasive; galaxies, languages, and political systems all evolve. Biological evolution … is change in the properties of populations of organisms that transcend the lifetime of a single individual.”

Theory of evolution is the dominating, and currently popular (in our public schools, universities, and even in the media,) concept of how life reached its current state.

Most (not all) scientists embrace this hypothesis and phenomena driven by natural selection, so much so that it is generally assumed as factual in most studies.

What Does Evolution Theory Teaches?

Evolutionists believes and teaches that life itself originated from a single-cell in a pond a billions of years ago. The majority of evolutionists denies the existence of God, humans, animals, and plants are nothing but an accidental by product of biological mutations.

I will limit myself to introduce the evolution theory as is commonly understood today in our public schools and universities, in three factors:

1. Spontaneous generation

Also called abiogenesis (bio means life, genesis means beginning or origin). What the term implies is that life arose from dead material, in a pond or other moist environment, commonly known as pre-biotic soup.

This is the idea that non-living matter can give rise to living organism. Classical notions of abiogenesis, now more precisely known as spontaneous generation, held that complex, living organisms are generated by decaying organic substances, e.g. that mice spontaneously appear in stored grain or maggots spontaneously appear in meat.

The Encyclopedia Britannica explains:

Whether the earth cooled from a molten mass or condensed out of cold dust, life could not have existed when the earth was formed some 5,000,000,000 years ago; it must have originated since. As both processes (automatic synthesis and ultra violet light energy) are the characteristic of life, it is not unreasonable to suppose that life originated in a watery “soup” of pre biological organic compounds and that living organisms arose later by surrounding quantities of these compounds by membranes

that made them into “cells.” This is usually considered the starting point of organic evolution.

This theory is supposedly have been “proven.”

2. Natural Selection

It teaches that, Natural selection is the process by which species adapt to their environment. Natural selection leads to evolutionary change when individuals with certain characteristics have a greater survival or reproductive rate than other individuals in a population and pass on these inheritable genetic characteristics to their offspring.

3. Homology

Perhaps one of the stronger arguments for evolution that humans have originated from one species is the analogy of homology.

Homology is a specific explanation of similarity of form seen in the biological world. Similarities can often be explained by common descent; features are considered homologous if they are shown to be inherited from a common ancestor.

Macro- and Micro Evolution

What about “macro”- and “micro evolution?” The word macro- and micro evolution was used in the late 1930s, by evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky devised the Modern evolutionary synthesis.

Macro evolution teaches that, in evolutionary theory entails common ancestry, descent with modification, speciation.

This means in a simple language, one organism transform into a new but different organism, i.e. worms turns crocs. The micro evolution on the other hand teaches that, as one evolutionists explains,

Micro evolution is defined as the change of allele frequencies (that is, genetic variation due to processes such as selection, mutation, genetic drift, or even migration) within a population.

In simple term micro evolution tells us that, for instance a dog only produces a different but the same subspecies dog.

As a students of biology one must not confuse between the two. Micro- and macro evolutionary has its different significance. The evolution theory is very much accepted in general because of its none God inference.

Most scientists argues that because of the theory of evolution from cosmology (Big Bang) to life (biology) it is now quite alright to be a confirmed atheist. Because science, so they say, has disproven the God-myth and the Bible.

Other reason why the theory of evolution is popular because it teaches that morality is subjective, since God an absolute standard of right and wrong does not exists. Or cannot possibly exist in a non-purpose mindless universe.

As a back drop, evolutionism is mainly atheistic and naturalist theory. I don’t understand why Christians should compromise in their synthesising between creationism and evolutionism as if both were compatible.

As George Gaylord Simpson an evolutionist said,

Man is the result of a purposeless and natural process that did not have in mind. He was not planned. He is a state of matter, a form of life, a sort of animal, and a species of the Order Primates, akin nearly or remotely to all of life and indeed to all that is material.

Now that we have properly (even though briefly) conduct our review namely what evolution means and what it teaches, it is I guess safe to conclude that Evolution theory hinges (though not entirely exclusively) and rely upon three things:

1. Spontaneous generation

2. Natural selection, and

3. Homology

I have also written and describe pronto the difference between macro-and microevolution as a part of this study.

Why? Because this subject can be very confusing. If we as Christians cannot and or fail to differentiate between the two can be very devastating in our dialogs with the evolutionists.

Darwin’s theory of evolution has mostly been the benefactor of the moral decline mostly in the western world. It has given the people excuse to simply live as they wished. Darwinism leads to what people call themselves as secular (anti-God) humanists.

But is darwinian theory of evolution a proven matter of fact? Many scientists believes this theory to be true so is it then an established fact? Lets see if we can answer this question.

Is Darwinian Evolution Theory Scientific or A Hoax?

First off, neither creationists – and evolutionists scientists were there to witness the universe first hand to occur. All we have at this present stage are artifacts and data of what we can examine from this present of the past.

Both theory can only examine what we can get and observed right now, whether it be fossilized bones, carbon dating and so on and so fort.

Second, the evidence or data we discover does not automatically become obvious for scientists as a fact since, evidence does not speak for themselves but is interpreted by our own interpretations whether we be evolutionists or creationists.

To state that, “the data of fossil records points more on the evolutionary theory” is biased if not dogmatic.

Just because the majority of evolutionists are anti-God does not follow that their interpretation of the evidence of origin automatically infers naturalism. To discredit creationist scientists because they happen to be Christians is prejudiced

The Law Of Abiogenesis

With this in mind, creationists and evolutionists undoubtedly agrees that life is complex. Yet darwinists maintains that life was generated from non-living material in a primordial soap.

The transition from non-life to life, however, has never been observed. Despite of what the evolutionists tells us about spontaneous generation, there is simply no evidence to support this theory much less to have occurred.

One must also remember that spontaneous generation is not widely accepted as a settled, fact theory among biochemists and other scientists. On the contrary, this theory has been under criticism more and more thanks to the development of highly advanced technology.

Scientist Michael Denton (not a creationist) said concerning this topic,

“Considering the way the pre-biotic soup is referred to in so many discussions of the origin of life as an already established reality, it comes as a shock to realize that there is absolutely no positive evidence for its existence.” [1]

Other scientists such as Sir Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe concluded,

“The likelihood of the spontaneous formation of life from inanimate matter is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it…It is big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution. There was not primeval soup, neither on this planet nor any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random, they must have been the product of purposeful intelligence.” [2]

More and more scientists arrives there conclusions that life cannot simply come from non-life. Luis Pasteur a Christian and scientist proved experimentally over 120 years ago that dead objects cannot produce living ones.

In his studies, Pasteur comes into conclusion that life always arises from life of the same kind. This is recognized as the law of abiogenesis (studies of the origin of life).

Carl Sagan an atheist estimated the probability for non-life to rise life, thus,

“The mathematical probability of the simplest form of life emerging from non-living matter has the unbelievable odds of one chance in ten to the two billionth power (1 in 10 with two billion zero after it) – even less probability than predicted by Sir Hoyle or Dr. Morowitz. The enormity of this figure is revealed by the fact that it would take 6,000 books of 300 pages each just to write the number!” [3]

Wayne Jackson in his book The Evolution Revolution wrote,

“The probability of life originating from accident is comparable to the probability of the unabridged dictionary resulting from an explosion in a printing shop.”

As scientist George Javor added,

“Abiogenesis, both spontaneous and directed, is merely a concept. It has not been observed or demonstrated in the laboratory. Moreover, no one has come up with a convincing scenario of how it could happen, even on paper.” [5]

Indeed, spontaneous generation is just a concept and a hypothesis. It is, as stated earlier, neither demonstrable or observable. Life must only come from life.

But how many of us realize the fact that life is too complex for it to just emerge from non-living material. The DNA for instance. Those who have been studying the complexity and mechanism of the DNA cannot just ignore its vast information.

For those who have not the time to look more closely the DNA functions: DNA is the genetic material that carries all the instructions for the function of the cell. [6]

DNA determines also what structures a cell will build, what chemicals or hormones it will produce. This means that DNA decides what eye color an individual will have or what the color of his or her hair or still what skin complexion a person may have are also determined by it. But what is the odds for the DNA forming by chance in an organic-soup?

In their Book Darwin’s Demise Drs. White, and Comninellis argued against the notion of DNA arising from just happenstance,

“DNA – containing the code for this first living cell – is very complex and does not naturally occur. As a matter of fact the chance of you being able to jump high enough to reach the moon is greater than the chance that DNA would form by chance. Its existence can only reasonably explained by some external, organizing force.” [7]

Information scientists, Werner Gitt, expounds the information storage in DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid:

Not only is the amount of the information in cellular DNA staggering, it’s also incredibly compact. We marvel at computer storage disks with ever capacity. Yet the quantity of information that could be stored in a pinhead’s volume of DNA is equivalent to the content of a pile of paperback books spanning the distance from earth to the moon 500 times – each book being unique from others! [8]

A chemist and former evolutionist, Dr. Wilder-Smith, says,

It is emphatically the case that life could not arise spontaneously in a primeval soup of any kind…Furthermore, no geological evidence indicates an organic soup ever existed on this planet. We may therefore with fairness call this scenario “the myth of the pre-biotic soup.” [9]

In closing with our discussion of spontaneous generation, let us quote Edward P. Tryon, Professor of Physics at City University of New York,

The novelty of a scientific theory of creation ex nihilo(creation from nothing) is readily apparent, for science has long taught us that one cannot make something from nothing. [10]

We should teach our children, peers, and love ones that the simple aphorism, ”something cannot come from nothing” is a fact! This is pure and simple and should have been well established in the scientific community long time ago.

We should also remember the truth that non-living material cannot produce living things. To believe it is not scientific or intelligent. Life comes only from life.

Does The Natural Selection Support Evolution?

As you have noticed we have examined the probability for life arising from non-life without any guidance from intelligence is impossible just as scientists (quoted above) studied the spontaneous generation.

Does natural selection support the theory of evolution? This is our second examination whether or not evolution is true.

Let us turn to what is commonly known in our biological textbooks: natural selection. According to humanist evolution adherents, natural selection is the primary mechanism that drives evolution.

Natural selection as darwinist defines is,

“The process by which genetic traits are passed on to each successive generation. Over time, natural selection helps species become better adopted to their environment. Also known as “survival of the fittest,” natural selection is the driving force behind the process of evolution.” [11]

Is this true then? Biblical creationism explains on the other hand that, the mechanism and process of natural selection does not point to molecules-to-man. Creationism maintains that, organism do change but only within its species i.e. from wolf to coyote.

Creationist never denies this kind of change, what is in dispute is the type of change such as fish-to-philosopher as the theory of evolution originally proposed. Creationist Nicholas Comninellis says,

“It is understandable that the fastest, most agile, and strongest creatures will survive longer than the sick, the weakened, and crippled. But while natural selection may explain the survival of the fittest within a particular group of plants or animals, it does not explain transformation from one species into another. Actually, nature selection is conservative, not creative.” [12]

Christian and scientist Henry M. Morris also explains that natural selection only operates within the particular type of organism,

“Modern molecular biology, with its penetrating insight into the remarkable genetic code implanted in the DNA system, has further confirmed that normal variation operate only within the range specified by the DNA for particular type of organism.” [13]

Creationists always believed that there are variations within species, yet this variations do not cross into something entirely new organism.

Natural selection “transform” what is already in the gene pool. Plant physiologist, David Catchpoole added,

…natural selection is not evolution since by itself it cannot make new organism. Natural selection can only eliminate weaker organisms (and thereby their genes) from the population. A group of creatures might become better adopted to a colder environment, for example by natural selection weeding out those which don’t carry the genetic information to make thick fur, but that doesn’t explain the origin of the information to produce thick fur.” [14]

The evolution model of natural selection is corrupt and in explainable. The creationist model predicts and ‘fits’ will in the creationist theory. Jonathan Sarfati a physical chemist explains this very well,

“In contrast, creationists, starting from the Bible, believe that God created different kinds of organisms which reproduced “after their kinds” (Gen. 1:11-12,21,24-25). Each of these kinds was created with a vast amount of information. There was enough variety in the information in the original creatures so their descendants could adopt to a wide variety of environments.” [15]

Scientists especially those of the creation movements proposed what natural selection can, and cannot. Please consider the chart below.

 Natural Selection Can Natural Selection Cannot 
 Decrease genetic information  Increase provide new genetic information
 Allow organismto survive in a given environment  Allow organisms to evolve from molecules to man
 Act as a selector  Act as “originator”
 Support creation’s “orchard”  Support evolutionary “tree of life”

Again, creationists does not deny change or transformation for organisms to adopt its environment. But this change only occur within species i.e. bear kinds and have limitation and does not create new life form (for example, polar bear to gorillas). 

    Evolutionists on the other hand argues that mechanism of organisms adopting its environment will eventually (given enough time) transform into something new creature (for example, crocs to a chimp). How can this be since evolution requires changes that increase genetic information? This is not science.  

    Macro evolution (particles-to-man) has never been scientifically observed. All they can tell you is that the reason why we cannot observed ‘evolution’ before our eyes is because it is very slow and takes millions of years of process.

    Micro evolution (wolves to coyotes) though decreasing its genetic information can be observed and predicted.

Homology Doesn’t Say Common Ancestor

What about the argument from homology, does this support the Darwinian theory of evolution? Homology or common structure between animals is being promoted as an irrefutable evidence for evolutionists theory.

The argument for evolution assumes the common physical features, such as five fingers on apes and human, which supposedly points to a common ancestor in the distant past.

Is this true? Let us now continue with our study whether the Darwinian theory is scientific or just a religion disguised as science,

Scientifical creationists critique this argument from homology as evidence for common ancestor, but rather say that common structure were due to common Creator than common descent.

Creationists proponents argues that a common Designer explanation makes much more sense. Jonathan Sarfati Ph.D. wrote concerning this;

DNA comparisons are just a subset of the homology argument, which makes just as much sense in a biblical framework. A common Designer is another interpretation that makes sense of the same data. An architect commonly uses the same building material for different buildings, and a car maker commonly uses the same parts in different cars. [Jonathan Sarfati, Refuting Evolution, Master Books, p.112]

In his book, Evolution: Fact, Fraud, or Faith?, Don Boys wrote,

Similarity does not equal relationship. Evolutionists often use similarity between animals and man to “prove” Darwinism. They point to the legs, neck, ears, etc., of apes and remind us how similar they are to those of men. Creationists likewise use similarities to support creation…So God used His blueprint for many of His creatures. Similarities don’t mean common ancestry but a common Architect!

Textbooks in biology defines homology as similarity due to common ancestry, then claim that it is evidence for common ancestry — a circular argument (logical fallacy)masquerading as scientific evidence? Yet common ancestry is being teached in our public schools as a fact.

We can infer that the similarity indicates common Designer not “common ancestor.” In addition, common descent as an argument for Darwinism is not a direct find to support their theory, but an interpretation-an interpretation made from an evolutionary framework.

From a biblical framework of thinking, creationists would say that the similarity (among birds for instance) reflect their having been created by a single Designer with a common basic plan.

But, what about the oft-mooted idea that humans and chimps have 96-98 percent DNA similarity? Does’ntthis countan evidence that human evolve fro apes? To be honest, evolutionary argument from a common ancestor to explain likeness is probably the most appealing hypothesis. However, this hypothesis falls far short as a confirmation for common descent.

Concerning the likeness between man and a chimp and therefore common ancestor is misleading to say the least. Again, similarities between humans and apes are often over-dramatized if not overrated.

For example, it was inferred from a fairly crude technique called DNA hybridization where small parts of human DNA are split into single strands and allowed to re-form double strands (duplex) with chimp DNA . However, there are various reasons why DNA does or does not hybridize, only one of which is degree of similarity (homology). Consequently, this somewhat arbitrary figure is not used by those working in molecular homology (other parameters, derived from the shape of the ‘melting’ curve, are used). Why has the 97% figure been popularised then? One can only guess that it served the purpose of evolutionary indoctrination of the scientifically illiterate.

Let say, for the sake of argument, similarity due to common ancestry, then, the analogy between ape and man breaks down because humans are more closely related to chicken and crocodiles.

“Hemoglobin, the molecule that carries oxygen in the blood, is found in all vertebrates, including humans. But hemoglobin also exists in earthworms, crustaceans, starfish, and end in some microorganisms. Crocodiles hemoglobin is more similar to chicken hemoglobin than it is to the hemoglobin of snakes, and other reptiles. Human lysozyme, an enzyme for digesting foods, is more similar to chicken lysozyme than to the lysozyme of apes and other primates. [16]

Farther more, in his new book , Darwinism and Intelligent Design, Jonathan Wells wrote,

“But if similarities are the primary evidence for common ancestry, how can we know when they are not due to common ancestry?” and “Similarities in fossils originally suggests that hippos are evolutionary sisters of pigs and camels but far removed from whales. Similarities in molecules now suggests that hippos are evolutionary sisters from whales but far removed from pigs and camels- and that the fossil similarities on which Darwinists originally relied were never evidence for common ancestry at all.” [17]

Humans are very different from yeast but have some bio-chemistry in common, so we should expect human and yeast DNA to be only slightly similar. Thus, the general pattern of common structures need not be explained by common-ancestry evolution.

Closing Statement

The question, “Is Darwinian Evolution True?” has been, in my opinion, answered and critiqued thoroughly by handful other scientists and in this essay that it cannot be possibly true. The evidence against the theory of evolution is being challenge not only by creationists who are scientists but by secular scientists too. They found this theory seriously flawed.

We can safely conclude in what we have researched that Darwinism is not a scientifical fact but a hoax! The only viable and satisfying explanation in the origin of man is God. An all-powerful, all-knowing God created the universe including you and me as we read in the Scripture. The theory of Evolution is not needed because it as a hypothesis cannot provide factually and reliable answer to our questions.

Notes and resources_____________________

[1] Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis, Adler & Adler; 3Rev Ed edition

[2] Sir Fred Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe, Evolution from Space, Simon and Schuster, p. 148

[3] John Billingham and Rudolf Pe, editors, Communications With Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence, Pergamon press

[4] Wayne Jackson, The Evolution Revolution, Montgomery, AL: Apologetics Press, Inc

[5] John Ashton and Michael Westacott, The Big Argument: Does God Exist? Master Books

[6] Drs. Joe White, Nicholas Comninellis, Darwin’s Demise, Master Books

[7] Drs. Joe White, Nicholas Comninellis, Darwin’s Demise (p. 31) Master Books

[8] Werner Gitt, Dazzling Design in Miniature, Publish in Creation Ex Nihilo

[9] Taylor, Origins Answer Book.

[10] Edward P. Tyron, New Scientist (March 8, 1984), p.14

[11] Qouted from the book, The New Answer Book, General editor Ken Ham, Master Books, p.272

[12] Nicholas Comninellis, Creative Defense, Master Book, p.82

[13] Henry M. Morris, Scientific Creationism, Master Book, p.51

[14] John Ashton and Michael Westacott, The Big Argument: Does God Exist? Master Book p.117

[15] Jonathan Sarfati Ph.D., Refuting Evolution, Master Book,p.32

[16] Drs. Henry Mooris and Gary Parker, What Is Creation Science? Master Books, p.52-61

[17] Jonathan Wells Ph. D, The Politically Incorrect Guide To Darwinism and Intelligent Design, Regnery Publishing, p. 41